The Environment in Egyptian Prehistory – A Story in 3D Models!

The geography of the Nile Valley was instrumental in shaping Predynastic material culture, which often incorporates motifs drawn from the natural world. The recurring use of natural imagery in the decoration of Predynastic material culture illustrates the importance of the natural world to these people, providing us with a window into the thoughts and concerns of people living over five thousand years ago.

Thanks to the tenacious efforts of our photogrammetry team, we are excited to now present these objects in full 3D!

Painted Decoration – Creating Landscapes in Ceramic

 

Painted decoration was one of the most common ways of incorporating natural motifs on objects during the Predynastic. Painted decoration regularly included scenes of desert hills, plants and foliage, boats, and a variety of animals, alongside more abstract designs. Sculpted forms of plants and animals were also applied to objects, particularly ceramic vessels.

 

Boats and water are another motif regularly incorporated into Predynastic designs; the importance of river travel in Egypt cannot be understated. Travel by boat was much quicker than by land, facilitating communication, which in turn allowed individual groups and rulers to control larger territories and proto-states; the connections forged by the capability to travel by boat also assisted in the transmission of material and social culture.

 

The way in which these motifs were utilised also illustrates the way prehistoric people viewed the world; for example, in the decorated sherd above, the animals appear to be wearing some kind of collar. The emphasis of the conflict between the settled land of the Nile valley and the wild, untamed creatures of the adjacent deserts is a recurring theme in Predynastic art, and depictions of animals sometimes include collars or ‘leashes’ to indicate the imposition of human order and control over the natural world.

Representations of Animals

Predynastic material culture included objects made to resemble animals, or otherwise incorporating animalistic motifs in their design. Small figurines, such as the crocodile below, were made to resemble animals. They may have been purely decorative, or they might have had some religious or ritual purpose – unfortunately, that information has been lost to us.

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The ‘Hierakonpolis bird dagger’ (E.616)

 

This ‘bird dagger’ is one of the most unusual and unique objects in the Predynastic collection at the Garstang museum; it seems entirely impractical, and would not have functioned particularly well as a dagger. The blade has been crafted to resemble a wing, while the hilt bears more than a passing resemblance to a bird’s beak. The purpose of this object is unknown, but its form is very interesting – the use of avian motifs here is in an abstracted form, suggesting identifying features of the animal without appearing thereomorphic.

Animal Forms (Theriomorphism)

Some Predynastic objects do not simply incorporate animal motifs on their design, but were manufactured to resemble certain animals. These are known as theriomorphic objects. The forms of these artefacts are often impractical, and it is unclear whether they would have seen actual use or whether they were purely decorative.

 

Palettes are one of the most common forms of material culture that incorporated natural designs; palettes were often made to resemble birds, fish, turtles, goats, and other animals from the Nile Valley. They were used to grind pigments for cosmetics.

The Natural World

The historian Herodotus said that “Egypt is the gift of the Nile”, and this was the case even in prehistory. When studying prehistoric artefacts, the lack of written evidence and poor survival of important archaeological features such as settlements, housing and clothing can distance the modern observer from the thoughts, feelings and experiences of the people who created these artefacts. By examining the recurring decorative motifs on Predynastic objects, we can begin to understand the way prehistoric people experienced the world; the things that were important to them, and the way they chose to display this importance.

If any of these objects piqued your interest, you can see them in person – visit the BEFORE EGYPT exhibition at the Victoria Gallery & Museum to discover more of our predynastic Egyptian collection.

By Christopher Bebbington (edited by Sarah McBride).

Photogrammetry Team: Ardern Hulme-Beaman, Sofie Kinzer, J.R. Peterson.

 

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Object in Focus: Stela of Amenysoneb (E.30)

Ancient Egyptian stelae are slabs of stone or wood which are typically inscribed with funerary and biographical texts and images. The Garstang Museum of Archaeology has a rather unique example of a Middle Kingdom (2055-1650 BCE) stela which belonged to a man called Amenysoneb. This stela dates to the 13th Dynasty (1795-1650 BCE) and was discovered at the site of Abydos by John Garstang in 1907.

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Obverse of Stela. Image courtesy The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

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Reverse of Stela. Image courtesy The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Abydos was a highly important religious and funerary site for the ancient Egyptians. During the Middle Kingdom, the Northern Cemetery at Abydos served as the primary burial ground for non-royal individuals. One area of the site was dedicated to cenotaphs and small ka chapels often containing stelae and ka statues and statuettes. These mud-brick cenotaphs were intended to serve as a place where the ancient Egyptians could commemorate their dead. They were a locus for the offering of food to the ka (soul) of the deceased so that they might be sustained in the afterlife. Not all stelae were placed in cenotaphs, some were erected along a processional route where cult activities honouring the god Osiris took place.

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A stela in mud-brick chapel at Abydos, A.253. Garstang Museum of Archaeology

The stela of Amenysoneb is highly unusual for a number of reasons. The large ankh, perhaps the most eye-catching feature of this object, with the cut-out window is not a common feature of Middle Kingdom stelae. In fact, only five similar examples are known to exist. The double-sided decoration on the stela is also unusual, with most stelae only being decorated on the front side. Unfortunately, the stela is damaged with two corners missing.

The obverse of the stela shows the stela owner, Amenysoneb, on the left of the cut-out. He is raising his hands in adoration to the funerary god Wepwawet who is shown in jackal form above. Traces of paint are visible on Amenysoneb, with his body being painted red-brown and his collar a blue-green. The hieroglyphs above Amenysoneb’s head read ‘Adoration of Wepwawet by the regulator of the phyle (group of priests) of Abydos’, to the right they read ‘Amenysoneb begotten of Waemsha’.

Below this figure of Amenysoneb, is a women holding a lotus flower to her face. This is a common scene in Egyptian art as the lotus held religious and funerary associations. This woman is labelled as ‘His mother, the lady of the house, Nebetitef, the justified’. Below Nebetitef sit her son, Sainheret, and daughter, Nebetaneheh, the siblings of Amenysoneb.

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Obverse, detail of Amenysoneb. Image courtesy The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

On the right, two sisters of Amenysoneb sit at his feet and hold lotus flowers. Nenni, the lady of the house, sits underneath Amenysoneb’s feet next to her daughter. In the bottom register, the doorkeeper of the temple, Siankhenptah sits next to his wife Titiu.

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Obverse, detail of figures. Image courtesy The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

On the reverse, six registers show different scenes of daily life. Various workmen and women prepare food (top register), slaughter cattle (second register), mill grain and prepare bread and beer (third register), harvest (fourth register), transport grain (fifth register), and sow crops (sixth register).

The depiction of scenes of daily life is common in Egyptian tombs, but on stelae it is perhaps unique to this stela. These scenes were intended to magically provide for the deceased and their ka in the event that physical food offerings were lacking.

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Reverse, detail of registers 1 and 2. Image courtesy The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

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Reverse, detail of registers 2, 3, and 4. Image courtesy The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

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Reverse, detail of registers 4, 5, and 6. Image courtesy The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Amenysoneb held the title of ‘regulator of the phyle of Abydos’, and he was probably in charge of the rota of the priests at the temple of Osiris at the site. Two other stelae belonging to Amenysoneb are also known, although this is the most unusual and curious example.

Stela were erected where those visiting these sites would see them and speak the words written on them, so it might have interested Amenysoneb to know that as well as an Egyptian and Liverpool audience, his stela has also been seen by visitors to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Suggested Bibliography

Hill, J. A. (2010). ‘Window Between Worlds: The Ankh as a Dominant Theme in Five Middle Kingdom Mortuary Monuments’ In Hawass, Z. and Houser Wegner, J. (eds), Millions of Jubilees: Studies in Honor of David P. Silverman Vol. 1, Cairo: Conseil Suprême des Antiquités, 227-247.

Kitchen, K. (1961). An Unusual Stela from Abydos. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 47, 10-18.

Oppenheim, A., Arnold, D., Arnold, D., Yamamoto, K. (eds) (2015). Ancient Egypt Transformed: The Middle Kingdom. New Haven, London: Yale University Press.

By C. Sargent

Before Egypt: 3D Models

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With our upcoming exhibition launching soon, we thought it would be nice to put the ‘spotlight’ on a few of the objects that will be on display. Our photogrammetry team has been hard at work creating 3D models of many of the objects that will be on display, in order to provide access to the objects for anyone unable to visit the exhibition in person.

The first three of our models are now available to view on Sketchfab; each of these objects depicts an animal, which suggests the importance of the Nile Valley, and its flora and fauna, to the Predynastic Egyptian people living there. These objects serve to illustrate the three important environs within the Nile Valley – the land, the river, and the sky.

The Land: E.4176

This black-topped red ware sherd is decorated with white crossed-line depictions of animals. The depiction of animals in Predynastic art often relates them to a fundamental struggle – the civilised order of humans triumphing over the wild beasts of the desert. In this case, the animal on the right appears to have a collar or leash of some kind around its neck, a sign of domestication.

The River: E.620

This carved stone crocodile was excavated by John Garstang at Hierakonpolis, and likely dates to the Early Dynastic Period. It is quite unusual in its form, particularly in the inclusion of a base for the crocodile to stand on. The pierced holes on the base of the object indicate it may have been worn (as an amulet or pendant of some kind), or it may have been suspended. Though John Garstang excavated primarily at the fort cemetery at Hierakonpolis, the unusual form of this object indicates it was likely excavated elsewhere.

The Sky: E.6111

This ceramic vessel also comes from Hierakonpolis, and is a unique object. Birds are commonly portrayed in Predynastic art, but they are never shown in flight – this vessel is the only known example. Though the decoration has faded over time, the distinctive and unusual forms of these flying birds are still clearly visible in their original red pigment.

Working With 3D Models

Exhibitions are limited in their scope; they run only for a short time, and even in large exhibitions, there is always a great deal of material that cannot be displayed – simply, there is never enough space! We hope that these 3D models will provide a means of access for anyone unable to make it to the exhibition, and for those who are coming, we hope this will whet your appetite! You can rotate the models, and zoom in and out to look at specific details; you can find out more information about the objects in the model descriptions and by clicking on the annotation points on each model.

We will continue uploading and sharing 3D models on our sketchfab page – check it out!

Christopher Bebbington.

Photogrammetry by: Sofia Kinzer, JR Peterson, Ardern Hulme-Beaman

 

Ancient Technology: Faience Beads in the Garstang Museum

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Strung faience beads, Lipscombe collection

A fairly common object to see in any museum collection or to find during a dig are beads, sometimes in vast quantities. The John Lipscombe Collection, formerly belonging to John Garstang’s daughter, Meroe, and recently donated to the Garstang Museum is no exception, containing large amounts of faience beads from various Egyptian sites (e.g. Esna). While they may not look like much on their own, faience beads have the potential, when analysed analytically, to raise questions about trade routes and the interconnections of regions and cities as well as the different technological choices being made by ancient craftsmen. This gives modern scholars the chance to peek into the mind of those in the ancient past.

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String of faience beads, Lipscombe collection

This is possible due to the way Egyptian faience was made. Egyptian faience was the first man-made non-clay ceramic, with examples of this material dating back to the Predynastic Period, before the unified state of Egypt existed. Egyptian faience comes in a variety of different colours, possibly intended to imitate precious stones, but the most common colour is a blue or blue/green that is visually very similar to turquoise. It was the use of copper that created this turquoise colour, and beads of this colour form the majority of those in the Lipscombe collection.

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Beads in 20th century soap box, Lipscombe collection

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Beads in 20th century cigarette tin, Lipscombe collection

Egyptian faience was made by using a silica source (sand), an alkali (natrun from the Wadi Natrun near the Delta), and lime.  These ingredients were then ground together to form the body material.  There were three ways of making Egyptian faience, the Application, Cementation, and Efflorescence technique.  With the application technique, the ground together ingredients would be made into a paste like material that could then be shaped or pressed into a mould (and we have faience objects that look like they were mould formed in this collection too).

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Mould-formed faience amulet, Lipscombe collection

Then this form was dipped into a slurry mixture that formed the glaze.  This slurry was made of silica, an alkali, lime, and a colourant.  Once dipped the object would be left to stand.  Application method produced objects can sometimes be identified with a simple visual examination of the surface to see if there are any pools or runs of the glaze where it was stood up whilst drying before being fired at 800°C-1,000°C. Cementation method uses the same glazing materials but instead of being a slurry is a powder.  The objects, rather than being dipped, are buried in a box of this powder so that during the firing process this powder would adhere to the surface of the objects.  It was a great way to make small objects like beads.  The efflorescence method involved the glazing material being mixed with the body material and then during the firing process the colourant would rise to the surface to leave the glaze.  It is these techniques that can be seen to be used across a wide time period and range of objects and shows how there was a choice in how these objects were made.

So while beads are numerous and may look like they have little to tell us, a quick analysis of them can give us an insight into the processes involved and in some cases the complex choices that could go into making something as simple as a single faience bead.

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Garstang senior volunteer, Sarah, untangling some strung faience beads

Further Reading

Friedman, Florence Dunn (ed.), Gifts of the Nile: Ancient Egyptian Faience (London: Thames and Hudson, 1998)

Kaczmarczyk, Alexander, and Hedges, Robert E. M., Ancient Egyptian Faience: An Analytical Survey of Egyptian Faience from Predynastic to Roman Times (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, 1983).

Nicholson, Paul T., with Peltenburg, Edgar, ‘Egyptian Faience’, in Nicholson, Paul T., and Shaw, Ian (eds), Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 177-194.

By Juliet Spedding

International Women’s Day

It is International Women’s day! To celebrate, we are taking a closer look at just a few of the historical women represented within the Garstang collections.

Neith-hotep

Living around 5000 years ago, at the very beginnings of written history, Neith-hotep was the first woman in the world to have her name written down (that we currently know of). Neith-hotep, who was active during the Proto-dynastic Period, is generally thought to be the consort of King Narmer and mother of King Hor-Aha – both men have been credited as the first king of a unified Egypt. The history is probably far more complex, but it is clear that Neith-hotep was a member of the ruling family during the period of Egyptian unification.

Here at the Garstang Museum of Archaeology we have been carrying out Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) analysis on clay seals from Neith-hotep’s impressive tomb at Naqada. This photographic technique revealed that Neith-hotep’s name is sometimes written in a serekh, a symbol only used to represent an independent ruler – in other words the king or queen regnant, never a queen consort. Very little is known about the political structures of the proto-kingdoms in Egypt before the unification. Her name in serekh form suggests that Neith-hotep was a ruler of one of these states, and that her union with King Narmer was a major factor in the very creation of ancient Egypt as a nation!

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Young girls looking at objects from the tomb of the first woman in recorded history.

Hatshepsut

Hatshepsut was the step-mother to Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmose III, who was only a child when he ascended the throne. While acting as co-regent for her young step-son, Hatshepsut declared herself Pharaoh too. She capitalised on the reputation of her illustrious father (Thutmose I) and even claimed to be the daughter of the god Amun, granting her sovereignty and making her the primary ruler of Egypt.

During her reign she led a colossal building program across Egypt that was equal to anything her male predecessors had achieved. Her spectacular temple at Deir el-Bahri is a testimony to her power, decoration on its walls document her diplomatic policies, which stretched from Cyprus to Nubia, to the mysterious Land of Punt. Egypt prospered under her reign, trade blossomed, temples were restored and peace was maintained across the unified country.

After Hatshepsut’s death, her successors campaigned to remove her from history. Her name was erased from monuments, replaced with names of later (male) Pharaohs, and she was omitted from supposedly complete lists of kings going back to Narmer and the foundation of Egypt itself. Despite all these attempts to blot Hatshepsut out of history, she persisted.

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Limestone depiction of Hathor, bearing Hatshepsut’s rebus in her headdress.

The Candaces of Meroë

Meroë was a capital city of the ancient African Kingdom of Kush (modern-day Sudan). Candace (Kandake, kendake, or kentake) was the title given to powerful female rulers and is sometimes taken to mean “royal woman”. There is evidence that the Candances of Meroë enjoyed power equal to, and sometimes greater than, their male counterparts, with some Candances ruling entirely under their own authority. The earliest recorded Candace is Shanakdakhete (c. 177-155 BC), who is said to have ruled without a king. Bas reliefs of Shanakdakhete (dated circa 170 BC) show her dressed as a warrior, wielding a spear. Candace Amanirenas is one of the best known Kushite queens, famous for leading an army against the Roman Empire in a five-year war (27-22 BC). Here at the Garstang Museum we have a Candance depicted in relief on a sandstone block discovered at the ancient city of Meroë.

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Candance depicted on a sandstone block.

Flavia Julia Helena Augusta

Flavia Julia Helena Augusta (also known as St Helen, patron saint of archaeology) was Empress of a world usually associated with masculinity and patriarchy; the Eastern Roman Empire. Born to humble beginnings, not much is known of her early life, although there is some evidence to suggest she was from the province of Bithynia in Asia Minor. She rose to prominence within the Roman court, eventually marrying Constantius who became Emperor in 293 AD. As Helena was considered too low-status to be Empress, Constantius divorced her before he assumed leadership, and Helena was removed from the imperial court. Their marriage did produce one son – the boy who would become Constantine the Great.

When Constantine became Emperor Helena was welcomed back to the imperial court. She was granted the title Augusta in 325, making her Empress and an ‘honoured woman’ within the imperial family. As an ‘honoured woman’ she could issue her own coinage, wear imperial regalia, and even rule her own court. It was around this time, it seems, that she converted to Christianity, travelled extensively, undertaking pilgrimages and (allegedly) finding lost relics associated with her new religion – including fragments of the true cross. Her piety greatly influenced Constantine’s conversion to Christianity and his decision to make Christianity the official religion of the Eastern and Western Roman Empires, changing the religious landscape of the world.

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Coin depicting Flavia Julia Helena Augusta.

Marie Garstang

Marie Garstang was the wife and colleague of John Garstang (first professor at the Liverpool Institute of Archaeology and the museum’s namesake). Although we know Marie Garstang worked with her husband in Egypt, Sudan and the Near East, it is hard to determine the extent of Marie’s contributions to her husband’s work. In a time when it was very difficult for women to gain independent academic recognition, her working relationship with John may have been one of mutual intellectual collaboration, interest and respect. She is acknowledged in introductions to John Garstang’s publications and in his 1934 Jericho field report John recognised Marie for her expertise in ceramic conservation.

The museum’s extensive collection of glass plate negatives gives a far greater insight into Marie Garstang’s working life, photographs show her excavating at Meroë, exploring Sundanese pyramids, and pouring over fragments of ancient pottery. Beyond archaeology, Marie served as a nurse with the Voluntary Aid Detachment during the first-world-war. At a time when women were demanding the renegotiation of their place in society, Marie Garstang followed in the footsteps of her ancient predecessors, proving that a skirt won’t slow you down.

(Find more about Marie Garstang, and other women in archaeology, at Trowel Blazers: https://trowelblazers.com/marie-garstang.)

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Excavating at Meroë.

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Exploring Sundanese pyramids.

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Examining ancient pottery fragments.

By Gina Criscenzo Laycock, Lauren Darsham, Eleanor de Spretter, Sarah McBride, Juliet Spedding, Ceri Stanford & Julia Thorne.

Photography and Photogrammetry at the Garstang

Professor John Garstang was a prolific photographer, and if there is one thing that the Garstang Museum has, it’s photographs! A lot of the pictures in our archive were taken by John Garstang himself during his excavations. Photographic documentation in archaeology wasn’t common practice at the time, making these archival entries all the more important. They are not just pictures of the artefacts and the sites from which they came, but of the people involved in the excavations, and even the odd candid snap of his life surrounding his work.

Today, documenting artefacts and sites via photography is an important step not only in the excavation process, but also in curatorial work. It allows us to digitally preserve images of artefacts that may be too fragile to handle, provide a way for the general public to view objects that they are unable to visit in person, and analyse the excavation processes of past excavations and even sites that no longer exist.

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Digital Archive Photograph from John Garstang’s Excavations at Meroë

Focus Stacking

The Garstang Museum has been working with Retrograde Photography to get some high-quality images of our objects for use in new displays and exhibits. One of the techniques used is called “focus stacking”. When getting very close to small objects for detailed photography, the focus range can be quite small, causing focus to “drop off” very quickly. Focus stacking involves taking a large number of photographs of the same object with different parts in focus, and then digitally combining these images to create a photograph of the object with every single part in perfect focus. The results are quite impressive!

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Hedgehog amulet photograph, courtesy of Retrograde Photography (E.207)

Photogrammetry

Technology has moved on from the simple photograph. A technique called photogrammetry is something that the Garstang Museum has begun exploring over the last couple of years. At its most basic it involves taking a series of high quality photographs of an item at different angles. This is achieved by placing the item on a turntable and moving it around in small increments, until the entire circumference of the item has been digitally captured. A series of ‘targets’ are placed on the turntable prior to photographing. They provide fixed points on the images, so that once the pictures have been taken they can be uploaded onto a computer and special software can pinpoint these fixed points. These fixed points then allow the software to turn those 2D images into a 3D model.

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Ardern, one of the post-doctoral researchers at the University of Liverpool, teaching the team about photogrammetry.

The availability of this technology means that objects that are too fragile to normally handle can be manipulated and studied. Most importantly, members of the public can interact with artefacts in a way that they previously haven’t been able to; artefacts normally behind cases and only viewed from one angle can become items that a person can move around and examine. Objects that are not normally on display for whatever reason could be digitised and uploaded into interactive catalogues for people engage with. The wide reaching implications of museums such as the Garstang being able to utilise photogrammetry technology not only to educate in the public sphere, but also to aid in research pursuits, is incredible. It has the possibility of inspiring new fields of study, revitalising older ones, and bringing the past to life in a manner that is accessible to all.

Sarah McBride (Edited by Chris Bebbington).

John Garstang’s Excavations at Jericho

The site of Jericho, located near the Jordan River on the West Bank, is famous for a number of reasons, not the least of which being its importance in biblical literature. The site contains the remains of no less than twenty successive settlements, and is one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world (as well as the oldest known city with a protective wall). The Hebrew name for Jericho, Yeriẖo, is likely derived from the Canaanite word reaẖ, meaning “fragrant”. This imagery evokes the natural landscape surrounding the site; Jericho is a Tell site surrounded by copious natural springs which have historically provided a compelling reason for human societies to settle around the site – in fact, the earliest structures pre-date sedentary agriculture and other early cultures around Jericho were pre-ceramic (belonging to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A Phase). At the foot of the Tell itself, a perennial spring provides fresh water and irrigation for the nearby soil, providing ideal conditions for early agriculture. Furthermore, the site itself is located on an important route leading into coastal Palestine and the Fertile Crescent, important centres of early settlement, trade and human migration.

The Garstang Excavation

The first excavations at the site of Jericho took place in 1868 under the auspices of Sir Charles Warren of the British Royal Engineers, who dug into the Tell but found little to interest him and moved on. John Garstang arrived in 1930 and excavated until 1936, reaching the Neolithic phase of site occupation and covering successive incarnations of the city. The aim of the excavation was to investigate the biblical history of the site, attempting to incorporate the stratigraphy of the site into the narrative of conquest portrayed in the Bible. The excavation uncovered four distinct layers of occupation, which Garstang interpreted as four separate cities built on top of each other. It also uncovered a structure, identified as a temple by John Garstang, which showed evidence of regular reconstruction with foundations stretching through multiple occupation phases, as well as a structure identified as a palace standing at the highest point within the city walls.

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Archive photograph from John Garstang’s excavations at Jericho.

The excavations uncovered not only Neolithic assemblages but also deeper deposits belonging to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A Phase. The work of the Garstang excavation cleared two levels of occupation of the Pre-Pottery Phase, uncovering highly developed settlement architecture (for the time period) consisting of hand-made mud brick walls and fine, burnished plaster on the ceilings and floors. Notably, this architectural style changes completely in the succeeding ceramic phase.

Burial Assemblages at Jericho

The majority of finds from John Garstang’s excavations were ceramic, although many proved difficult to date due to a lack of significant parallels. While the forms of the vessels were similar to material from other Near Eastern sites, consisting primarily of small juglets and open bowls, the decoration was almost entirely unique. This decorated style incorporates motifs of chevrons and triangles in a red pigment, and the decorated vessels exist alongside undecorated vessels made primarily of coarse ceramic with grit and straw inclusions. The majority of these ceramic vessels came from a necropolis west of the Tell, which provided information regarding burial customs at the site.

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A selection of undecorated ceramic bowls, dipper juglets, a cylindrical vase and a pedestal vase from Tomb D13, dated c.2200-1570 BCE.

Tombs were generally small chambers or shallow, round graves containing material including ceramics, flint implements and the remains of offerings such as sheep bones. They varied greatly in size, and older remains and grave goods were often pushed aside to make room for newer series’ of burials with tombs containing anything from four to over a hundred occupants. This form of burial assemblage is typical of Near Eastern sites, but notably the concentration of pottery at Jericho far outstripped the inclusion of other material (although, of course, any potential perishables included in the burials may not have survived). Notably, objects found in these burials illustrated early links with other cultures in the Mediterranean and Egypt.

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Miniature juglets, used to store perfume (J.57.7, J.57.91-92 and J.57.95).

Human Heads!

One of Garstang’s key discoveries at Jericho was a plaster head, with shells for eyes, part of a complete figure. This discovery was made from contexts approximately between the pre-pottery and pottery phases, but more evidence has been discovered relating to human heads at Jericho by later excavations under the direction of Dame Kathleen Kenyon, who excavated a collection of “portrait heads” in 1953. These heads were moulded in plaster around human skulls with inset shells replacing the eyes, identified as objects of interest for early cultic and religious practice at the site. Notably, the skulls themselves are personal and no two are alike, suggesting that they may be representative of actual individuals living at Jericho in the Neolithic period!

Conclusions – A Century of Work

The site of Jericho is a fundamentally important milestone in understanding early human development, settlement and agricultural practices. The excavation history of the site is long and storied, and the work of John Garstang is just one of many excavations that has provided information about Jericho’s rich history. The collection of material from John Garstang’s excavations illustrates the vibrant cultures developing at the site in the Neolithic, and his discovery of the aceramic culture has led to Jericho being considered a quintessential example of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A Phase.

Chris Bebbington.

Object in Focus: A Female Figurine from Ancient Egypt

Countless figurines have been found in Egypt, from steatopygous figurines in the Predynastic to blue faience nude figurines, from paddle dolls to innumerable shabtis, statuettes designed to spring to life in the afterlife to work for their master in the Fields of Reeds. This particular figurine – E.6895 – predates the New Kingdom (c. 16th Century BCE) and is something of a curious find. The object comes from Garstang’s excavation at Abydos (1906-1909). The statuette features an elaborate headdress or wig, and is decorated with rounded impressions across the entirety of the figurine. These “punctures” are paralleled on other figurines from the Pharaonic Period.

Material and Production

Figurines tend to be made from local ceramic and may have been produced en masse – indicated by the commonality of features across numerous figurines. The distinctive decoration and head shape may indicate production by individuals working to emulate a specific form. However, the ease of access to the material (clay) opens the possibility that these figurines were not produced only by so-called ‘skilled’ craftspeople. Similar material from the Predynastic – e.g. steatopygous figurines – are found across multiple sites from different time periods and show no evidence of any centralised production or specific ‘workshop’ or ‘craft area’ where they were produced. Similarly, the ubiquity of these statuettes across multiple sites suggests that, even if they were being produced en masse to a specific design, they were still being produced by numerous individuals.

Note that this statuette does not have holes through the head, which can be seen on other figurines and similar material and which were used to string “hair” onto the head of the figure. So-called ‘paddle dolls’, usually found in funerary contexts, have hair as a prominent feature – usually gathered into a coil, which was subsequently looped over the “head” of the doll. Note that the statuette does not feature the emphasised breasts and pubis associated with other forms of Egyptian figurines – they are clearly identified, but not overly emphasised or enlarged. Like Badarian anthropomorphic figurines, Naqada steatopygous figurines, Pharaonic ‘paddle dolls’ and numerous other female figurines from across the Near East and Europe, statuettes such as this have been labelled as ‘fertility fetishes’, ‘concubine figurines’ or variant shabtis used to act as a concubine or servant in the afterlife. This interpretation, however, is dated and deeply problematic.

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Close-up detail of pubis and “puncture” decoration (E.6895).

Fertility Figurines?

Most interpretations of figurines as “fertility” icons rely on emphasised breasts and pubis as part of their interpretation, but this figurine lacks the exaggerated female aspects that are common among other “fertility” idols. In fact, the most emphasised element of the figurine is its headdress/wig and “puncture” decoration. The “puncture” decoration is not necessarily associated with sexuality, and instead may reflect Egyptian tattoos, evidence for which has been uncovered in mummies from IFAO’s excavations at Deir el-Medina. Is it necessary to associate these tattoos with, as has been done in the past, prostitution and sex work? Could an alternative explanation, one more reflecting the material at Deir el-Medina, instead identify tattoos as signifiers of ritual “magic” or female priesthood and religious rites?

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Close-up detail of the headdress/”wig” and “puncture” decoration (E.6895).

Shabtis, which were mass-produced by the thousands, were subject to far more extensive decoration, with even the most simplistic including hieroglyphic inscriptions and some indication of clothing and facial features. If E.6895 were a “concubine” figurine for the afterlife, this would necessitate some spell of activation to bring it to life in its function as a shabti, which is not the case on this object or its parallels. Later examples of figurines with perforations and headdresses of a similar style are still simplistic in their form and show few parallels with shabtis. Parallels in the museum and elsewhere are regularly found broken, with the heads, torsos and arms damaged. Is it possible that this deliberate damage was inflicted as part of a religious or magical ritual?

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Egyptian shabti dated to the New Kingdom (E.1749).

Magical Tools?

Recent findings paint a different picture of the object and figurines like it. Papyri discovered in the Mut Precinct of the Karnak Temple Complex show that these figurines may have been used in the practice of magic (or heka) in ancient Egypt. The direct quote from the papyrus, which can be found in Leiden, describes a spell for curing stomach ache: ‘Words spoken over a female figure of clay. As for any of the suffering in the belly, the affliction shall go down from him into the female figure of Isis until he is healthy’. At this point, the statue would be destroyed. This explains examples of similar statuettes being found broken at points where natural breakage is very unlikely, such as at the thick neck, or the waist. Furthermore, note that this figurine is incapable of standing as its legs taper to points.. It is possible, then, that the statue was most likely held in one hand – as one would expect from a magical tool.

This also explains the nature of the decoration – a statuette meant to be used as an aide to a ritual spell and then destroyed would not necessarily be afforded the level of detailed decoration one would expect to find on other forms of Egyptian statuary and figurines. The elaborate headdress/wig could also be attributed to the statuette being a representation of Isis. Notably, one of the titles of Isis, weret-heka, meaning “great of magic”. Isis was regularly associated with healing, and in Egyptian mythology was able to heal the child Horus in the marshes of Chemmis after he was injured by snakebite.

Final Thoughts

These figurines are fascinating, not just due to their function, but due to the various interpretations of their meanings since their discoveries. It has only been the discovery of papyri, the survival of which is nothing short of a miracle, that cast light on their functions, beyond simplistic interpretations such as “fertility fetish”, or ”concubine figure”. They illustrate the difficulty in understanding objects and materials without written context to refer to, one of the greatest challenges in interpreting archaeological evidence.

Thomas Redpath.

Edited by Chris Bebbington & Megan Clarke.

Decorated Ware – A Landscape in Ceramic

D-Ware (or Decorated Ware) is a classification of Predynastic pottery originating from Flinders Petrie’s seriation of Predynastic material from Diospolis Parva. The characteristics of D-Ware are that it is made from Marl clay and decorated with red pigment, likely made from ochre. The vessels are decorated with numerous designs and motifs, ranging from abstract geometric patterns to depictions of humans, animals and the natural landscape of the Nile Valley. The majority of D-Ware vessels date to the Naqada IIC-IID and Naqada IIIA-IIIB periods, with most found across sites in Upper Egypt (though there is limited distribution through Middle Egypt, Lower Egypt and Nubia).

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Boats, plants, animals and human are all motifs regularly appearing on D-Ware vessels like this one (E.3030).

Geometric Designs

Certain forms of decoration on D-Ware vessels appear to be abstract – wavy lines, patterns or simple shapes. It is unclear whether these shapes may have communicated an idea or might represent something more concrete, as the vast temporal space between the manufacture of the vessels and their interpretation now prevents our understanding of the meanings behind these abstract shapes.

 

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The decoration on this vessel from Koshtamna consists only of a series of curved lines painted on all sides of the vessel (E.3045).

In some cases, it is possible that these shapes are an imitation of more expensive vessels – it is common, for example, to find Predynastic vessels with swirls, spirals and other decorations intended to imitate the patterning of stone vessels – a material that was less common, harder to procure and much more difficult to work with. Another possibility is that these vessels might still be representing aspects of the natural world – for example, it is not uncommon to find wavy-line decoration on D-Ware vessels reminiscent of the later hieroglyphic sign for the consonant value ‘n’, which represent water. Could this form of decoration be an attempt to depict water, or the River Nile – of central importance to Egyptian society throughout both history and prehistory?

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The swirling patterns on this vessel are an imitation of the patterning on stone vessels from the same time period (E.4762).

Depictions of Natural and Human Geography

A common motif is the inclusion of natural and human features in the landscape. For example, often one sees rows of black triangles taken to represent the desert hills surrounding the Nile Valley. In most cases, these are featured alongside depictions of animals, such as oryx, addax or ibex, and may indicate a spatial relationship between the grazing lands of these animals and the desert hills located nearby. Alternatively, the relationship between the depictions of geographical features and other parts of decoration on the vessel might be an early precursor to the strictly delineated registers of decoration found on later Egyptian material, such as stelae and tomb and temple wall inscriptions.

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This striking D-Ware pot includes zig-zag banding just below the rim, followed by “registers” of grazing animals, desert hills and river plants (E.3035).

A less common feature of decoration is the potential inclusion of human architectural elements. These ‘architectural elements’ are cross-hatched geometric shapes, in the form of structures tentatively identified as wattle-and-daub or matted constructions (potentially shrines or temples, although this is mostly conjecture). These structures, whatever their intended purpose, may be the origin of the so-called ‘façade’ style decoration found in Predynastic and Early Dynastic motifs and iconography.

More common than actual buildings is the inclusion of boats. The central importance of the Nile River in Egypt cannot be understated, and riverine trade would naturally have been a facet of Egyptian life as far back as the Predynastic period. The ubiquitous representations of boats on D-Ware vessels illustrate how important they were to the Egyptians; moreover, their regular inclusion alongside human figures may be representations of trade and exchange happening along the riverside, a scene that is familiar from later depictions in the Pharaonic Period.

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Boats are one of the most common features of decoration on D-Ware vessels, regularly appearing next to depictions of humans and animals (E.3038).

Depictions of Flora and Fauna

Flora and fauna are commonly depicted on D-Ware vessels; plants and other natural vegetation are regularly included, although identifying specific species of plant is difficult due to the abbreviated nature of the art style. The fauna depicted are usually oryx, ibex and other grazing animals, although ostriches are also very common. It has been suggested that the representation of these animals on D-Ware – particularly if that representation is alongside human figures, which are sometimes represented touching or otherwise in contact with the animals – might be an artistic trope, illustrating the triumph of human order over animalistic chaos. However, this is difficult to prove with any certainty, and while the motifs are abstract enough that it is unlikely that they are historical – referring to a specific hunt or a specific interaction between humans and animals – they may just act as a record of the daily activities of their Predynastic creators.

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Close-up detail of a D-Ware vessel. This is the only known example of D-Ware including the unusual motif of birds in flight (E.6111).

Depictions of Humans

Humans depicted on D-Ware tend to be shown in an abbreviated form that emphasises the general shape of the figure rather than individual details or characteristics, much like anthropomorphic Predynastic figurines. Likewise, there are numerous examples of female human figures depicted with their arms raised over their heads and their legs together, the same pose as is depicted in steatopygous figurines and in rock art in the Western desert. The exact meaning of this pose has been hotly debated. Older theories tended to focus on a divine reasoning, either participation in a mother goddess cult or some form of prayer, but this is generally less accepted now. Modern scholarship relates the pose to being a symbolic assumption of authority through taking on visual characteristics associated with bulls.

The inclusion of human figures in this style on D-Ware vessels might indicate people of importance – they are regularly included in scenes that also include boats, which suggests that those humans depicted in this way may have had a level of social responsibility relating to boats, and by extension, trade. This would match with depictions of similar figures on rock art, which show them surrounded and potentially in control of grazing animals.

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This vessel shows human figures interacting on a boat, with the figure on the left shown with legs together similar to steatopygous figurines. Unfortunately, much of the decoration has been damaged (E.3027).

A Window into Ancient Minds?

The choice of decoration used on this pottery allows archaeologists a glimpse into the meaningful motifs and semiotic communications that were utilised and understood by Predynastic Egyptians, and can assist with the identification of important cultural signifiers relevant to the daily life of these prehistoric people. The absence of textual evidence from the Predynastic necessitates a reliance on the visual themes and designs utilised in Egyptian material culture in order to envision and relate to their world, as they understood it.

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This collage image stitched together from multiple photographs shows off the entirety of the decoration of this D-Ware vessel (E.3030).

Chris Bebbington.

Homosexuality in the Ancient World

The modern conception of sexuality relies on a strict categorisation of sexual appetites and personal desires – heterosexuality, homosexuality, bisexuality, pansexuality, etc. In the ancient world, however, these words did not exist and the concepts they represent were not necessarily analogous to our modern understanding of sexuality.

Attitudes towards homosexuality in recent history have coloured the perspective through which we view the nature of sexuality in the ancient world. Early historians, archaeologists and antiquarians viewed notions of alternate sexual identity through the lens of their own social mores, and their discussion of these sexual identities was often stilted and couched in euphemism (when it wasn’t downright ignored).

Modern scholarship has done a great deal to explore the history of sexual identities in ancient cultures and, though progress is slow, there is now a wider consensus on the existence of alternate sexual practices in the ancient world. Despite this, the application of modern labels to sexual identities in antiquity still provides an inadequate exploration of the lived sexual identities of ancient peoples.

Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece has a reputation in modern culture as a society in which homosexuality was accepted – even encouraged. Realistically, however, this is an oversimplification of a complex matter centring on gender, identity and social structure. Ancient Greece has served as an idealised utopia for alternative sexual identities, with Oscar Wilde famously referencing, in his trial in 1895, affection between two men as the “very basis” of the philosophy of Plato. Similarly, the attraction of the Greek isle of Lesbos – home of Sappho, the “tenth muse” and famous poet and writer – to lesbian women has taken on an almost mythological light. But to what extent was homosexuality truly accepted in ancient Greece?

Ancient Greek society was not an equal one. Citizenship was an obstacle to freedom, and those who were not counted as citizens – for example, in classical Athens, women, children and slaves – did not have the same rights or social esteem extended to the citizenry. Even between male citizens same-sex courting was couched in the terminology of pederasty, with an older male – the erastes – taking the role of a teacher, and a younger male, usually in his teens – the eromenos – taking the role of a student. Ignoring the necessary power imbalance that this imposed upon the relationship, the eromenos was often idealised as an embodiment of the virility, impressionability, naivety and beauty of youth. Pederasty had its own complex social-sexual etiquette and does not reflect the modern understanding of homosexual relationships as being functionally similar to heterosexual relationships.

The relationship of Plato with same-sex desire is a complex one. In his Symposium, the speaker Aristophanes discusses same-sex relationships in a way that closely resembles a more modern understanding – with the two participants treated as equals whose relationship completes the other. In his Laws, however, Plato dismisses same-sex relationships as being unnatural and unsuited to his vision of utopian society. This contradictory view of homosexual relations is characteristic of our understanding of alternate sexual identities in ancient Greece – same-sex relationships did occur, and in some ways may have been accepted and even celebrated, but they were not the ideal partnership and the way that courtship occurred is fundamentally unrecognisable to our modern understanding of same-sex relationships.

Ancient Rome

Though Rome has a rich history of homoerotic art and literature, their conception of same-sex relationships between men hinges around a traditional viewpoint of masculinity and femininity. Male same-sex relationships were generally accepted amongst the citizenry of Rome, but only as long as the citizen was in the dominant (or penetrative) role. The men who took on the “feminine” or submissive role were generally slaves, prostitutes or entertainers, men with lower social status known as infamia – technically free men, but not afforded the rights and protections of the citizenry. For a free man to allow himself to be penetrated threatened his sexual integrity and invited challenges to his virility and masculinity.

Female same-sex relationships are generally less well-attested in Roman literature during the Republic and Principate, although whether this reflects an issue of decorum – a refusal to mention these relationships as they were viewed as improper in some way – is debateable. Certainly, the attitude of prominent Roman poet Ovid hints at this, with his claim that female same-sex relations were “a desire known to no one…no female is seized by desire for a female”. In his Metamophoses, Ovid tells the tale of a pregnant woman named Telethusa, whose husband claims that he will kill their unborn child if she is female. She attempts to conceal the sex of her daughter when she is born, giving her the ambiguous name Iphis, and she is married to a golden-haired maiden named Ianthe. Though initially the relationship between the two is described romantically – “Love came to both of them together / in simple innocence, and filled their hearts / with equal longing”. The tale ends with Iphis being so horrified that the goddess Isis intervenes and transforms her daughter into a man – “Iphis: rejoice, with confidence, not fear! You, who were lately a girl, are now a boy!” This tale betrays not only Roman attitudes towards the clear division of gender roles and a lack of ambiguity in gender identity, but also highlights the valuation of female same-sex relationships as lesser or improper compared to heterosexual relationships.

Ancient Egypt

Attitudes towards same-sex relationships in ancient Egypt are hotly debated due to a lack of surviving literary evidence. In Talmudic literature, the ancient Egyptians are painted as a sexually promiscuous and “debauched” people, with Maimonides referring to lesbianism as “the acts of Egypt”. In truth, however, there is little evidence that such sexual freedoms existed in the ancient past.

In the New Kingdom tale of the Contendings of Horus and Seth, Seth assaults Horus in an attempt to dominate him and prove that Horus is unfit for kingship before the Ennead of Egyptian gods. Horus, however, catches Seth’s semen in his hands and tricks Seth into consuming his own semen. When this is revealed before the Ennead, Seth flees in embarrassment and is seen as unfit for kingship, giving some hint at possible Egyptian attitudes towards male same-sex relationships.

Perhaps the most famous case study regarding Egyptian homosexuality is the tomb of Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum, two Overseers of Manicurists in the Palace of King Nyuserre. The two men were buried together in a joint tomb at Saqqara, and have been considered by some scholars to be the first recorded same-sex couple in history. A great deal of this argument is based on the interpretation of tomb decoration showing the two men standing nose-to-nose and embracing, the most intimate pose allowed by the decorum of Egyptian art. There are a number of flaws in this theory – most obviously, the families of the two men are depicted in the decoration of their tomb, showing that both men had wives and children. Is it possible that the two men were engaged in a same-sex relationship? Was this permitted, allowed, even encouraged, by their families? Were they engaged in a polyamorous same-sex and heterosexual relationship? The dearth of solid evidence provides space for a great deal of supposition, but unfortunately such supposition tells us little of use about the practicalities of ancient Egyptian engagement and understanding of same-sex relationships and alternative sexual desires.

Projecting onto the Past?

The nature of academia is to not only strive for new discoveries, but also re-examine past interpretations of evidence to divorce oneself from the attitudes and lenses that coloured scholarly analysis in the past. It is crucially important to identity the biases and prejudices that existed in the past in order to come to a greater understanding of the truths of the past. Still, it is equally important to note that our own understanding is tinged by the attitudes of modernity, and our own conclusions will necessarily require re-examination by scholars in the future.

In truth, the projection of utopian ideals of sexual acceptance – particularly in the case of same-sex relationships – onto ancient cultures does not truly capture the complexity and social nuance that surrounded the complex issues of sexuality and desire in the past, and continues to cause controversy in the modern day. The application of modern labels onto sexual attitudes in the past – labels still hotly contested by scholars today – creates the issue of forcing a modern understanding of sexuality onto people who did not necessarily conceptualise sexual identity in the same way we do.

Furthermore, it is challenging to answer questions such as “What were ancient Roman attitudes to homosexuality?” or “How did the ancient Egyptians conceptualise same-sex relationships?” as these questions inherently assume a continuity of culture through vast chronological spaces. When discussing ancient cultures, it is important to appreciate the length of time and space through which they existed, and summarising socio-cultural attitudes so generally can obscure the fluid nature of human society. Attitudes towards homosexuality in, for example, the UK, have changed a great deal in just the last few decades – how much might attitudes have changed in the span of, for example, thousands of years of Egyptian culture?

Nonetheless, it is crucially important to continue re-examining the work of previous scholars and to try to understand these attitudes in the ancient world, not just to combat misinformation but also to come to a closer understanding of this fundamental aspect of human identity. The truth likely exists amongst layers of complexity between dated and conservative interpretations of ancient sexuality, and amongst modern utopian reinterpretations – as in modernity, attitudes towards sexuality in the ancient world were likely various and multifaceted in a way that archaeological and textual evidence struggles to communicate.

Christopher Bebbington.