Murals, the Museum and Bridget Riley

As we get ready for some artistic work within the museum, we have just noticed the news of Bridget Riley’s latest Egypt inspired mural in St Mary’s Hospital in London.

Inspired by the colour schemes used within a number of tombs in Luxor, Egypt, Riley began to experiment with her palette to replicate the sense of richness and light found in these underground structures. Ultimately resulting in what has been named the “Luxor Palette”.

A corridor decorated by Bridget Riley in the Royal Liverpool Hospital

A corridor decorated by Bridget Riley in the Royal Liverpool Hospital

Bridget Riley also has links with Liverpool, as during this time Riley was commissioned to decorate two corridors within the Royal Liverpool University Hospital (the decor sadly no longer survives but is shown here)- a precursor to the news which has spurred this post!

Sea Cloud (1981) by Bridget Riley Walker Art Gallery (No. 10639)

Sea Cloud (1981) by Bridget Riley
Walker Art Gallery (No. 10639)

 

Never fear though, as you are still able to view some of her work in Liverpool through “Sea Cloud” (1981, Acc. No. 10639) at The Walker Art Gallery. The Walker collection also has has a number of other paintings inspired by the Ancient past.

Our mural isn’t being done by Bridget though, but by the very talented Monsieur Mural -with the Garstang Museum Palette!! Work will be starting soon so keep an eye on here for progress reports and of course pictures!

For more about Bridget Riley’s latest murals see:
http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2014/apr/07/bridget-riley-mural-st-marys-hospital-london-in-pictures

 

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Object in Focus: A Meroitic Lion Statuette- E.8003

E.8003

E.8003

The object in focus this week is a small limestone statuette of a Lion from the ancient capital of Sudan, the city of Meroë (around 200km northeast of modern Khartoum). He is 14.8cm tall and was discovered by Prof. John Garstang during the 1912 season of excavations. Garstang excavated extensively at Meroë on behalf of the Institute of Archaeology between 1909 and 1914. His excavations revealed a complex layout of houses, temples and palaces built of stone and mud brick, with the remains of earlier periods being buried by later constructions as the city continued to be occupied for nearly a 1000 years. Meroë had a big impact on Garstang’s life, shown by the fact that he named his daughter after the city, which he had spent so long excavating.

The Kushite Empire was long lived and dates from between 890 BC and AD320. Whilst it was centred in the cities of Meroë and Napata, the rulers of Kush also held Egypt for around a century during the period known by Egyptologists as the Late Period. During this time a number of Kushite kings, such as Piye (Piankhy), Shabaqa and Taharqa also ruled over the Nile Valley as the 25th Dynasty of Egyptian kings. Despite losing their territory within the Egypt during the Assyrian conquest of the country, the Kingdom of Kush remained a major power in East Africa well into the early fourth century AD.

The art and culture of these kings was a fusion of the classically Egyptian and that of their native Sudan, both of these traditions living side by side. The golden age of the Kushite rulers within Egypt is often focused on the reign of Taharqa, who rebuilt temples within the Nile valley and attempted to extend the borders of his kingdom north of the Sinai. However, it was not to be, and the Assyrian King Ashurbanipal eventually expelled these rulers from the Egyptian Nile valley. Taharqa also produced one of the best known objects from this time, a sphinx in the British Museum which clearly shows the fusing of Egyptian and Kushite artistic traditions.

taharqa

BM EA 1770 -The Sphinx of Taharqa (Trustees of the British Museum)

http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/aes/s/sphinx_of_taharqo.aspx

Whilst the mythical sphinx is not unusual within Ancient Egypt, after all there is an exceptionally large example hewn into the Giza plateau itself, the lion also held a special significance within the Meroitic culture for a number of reasons. In fact, lions are a recurrent element found in the artefacts of this culture. As such, this statuette is only one of many leonine artefacts within our collection.

One of the primary functions of the lion was as a marker of royal authority, often shown devouring captives, or in this case seated regally.  The lion headed god Apedemak was worshipped as “the Lord of Royal power” in his temple at Naqa (south of Meroë). One famous relief in this temple shows a three-headed, four-armed Apedemak being adored by Queen Amanitore and King Natakamani.

DSCF1797

In addition to this, lions were also hunted, along with rhinoceroses. This dangerous game hunting was a sign of the power of the individual. The burial of animals with the Kings of Kush is well attested- with the first King buried at the site of el-Kurru, King Kashta, with a number of chariot horses. In this tradition, there is also evidence for the burial of three young lions at Sanam- though why this was done is unclear.This statuette will be displayed in our new galleries in 2014 with a range of Ancient Sudanese material from Gartang’s excavations. He will be joined by a whole pride of lions both small and large!

 

An Unknown Official and an Unseen Statuette (E.7804)

E.7804

E.7804

During the course of the work we are currently doing on the redevelopment of the Garstang Museum of Archaeology, a number of interesting artefacts have been found languishing in the museum stores. Many of these objects have been in storage for decades, and some may never have been seen by the public.

This elegant, yet sadly damaged, statue is one such object. It is carved from a relatively soft stone known as steatite, or soap-stone, and is a beautiful matte-green in colour. Even though the head and the bottom of the figure’s legs have broken away and been lost, it is nonetheless possible to tell that the figure was male and in the ‘active pose’ – with his left leg extended as if in mid-step.

This pose was highly popular throughout Pharaonic history, for kings and commoners alike. The stance, along with the youthful physique of the statue (with highly defined muscles) was intended to convey the “go-getting”-attitude and vitality of the deceased individual.

UC.8711

UC.8711

The dating of the object is not too difficult, even though it does not have any archaeological context. The pointed wig and posture is highly reminiscent of late Middle Kingdom private sculpture. Examples of this style are found in museums all over the world, such as this basalt statue currently residing in the Petrie Museum of Archaeology (UC8711).

Attached to the back of the figure is a pillar containing a hieroglyphic inscription of the offering formula. The purpose of this formula was to ensure a perpetual supply of foodstuffs and goods in the afterlife, and is a very common feature of ancient Egyptian funerary material. A similar back-pillar and inscription is also found on the now-famous “spinning” Middle Kingdom statue of Neb-Senu from the Manchester Museum. Despite keeping a close eye on E.7804, we have not yet witnessed any spinning – perhaps due to the loss of his legs!

E.7804 Inscription

E.7804 Inscription

The inscription on E.7804 is dedicated to “Osiris, Lord of Ankh-Tawy” which is quite an unusual combination of god and epithet. Ankh-Tawy was the necropolis district of the ancient Egyptian capital of Memphis and is almost always associated with the god Ptah. However, on occasion Osiris, as the Ruler of the Dead, was associated with this vast cemetery during the late Middle Kingdom, which adds further support to our suggested date for the figure.

Unfortunately the inscription breaks off just before the point where one would normally expect the name of the statue’s owner to appear. Egyptian statues were highly stylised, rather than being accurate portraits of the individual they commemorated. For this reason the inclusion of the individual’s name on an object of this type was of critical importance as it allowed the owner’s ka (spirit) to identify, and subsequently inhabit, the statue.

E.7804 will be going on display with a number of other funerary statuettes in the new gallery of ancient Egyptian funerary beliefs, opening in 2014.

Gaius “Caligula” Aureus from AD40

As we have been discussing Roman coins today with one of the researchers at the University, here is a particularly eye-catching gold Aureus.

Gaius "Caligula" Aureus (AD40)

Gaius “Caligula”
Aureus (AD40)

The coin dates to AD 40 and it shows the Emperor Gaius (known to us by his nickname “Caligula”). Caligula wore the purple from AD 37 up until his assassination in AD41. This particular coin also shows the first Emperor of Rome, Augustus (Also Caligula’s adoptive Grandfather) on the reverse.

The text reads C CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III (Gaius Caesar Augustus, Pontifex Maximus, held Tribunician Power three times, Consul for a third time)

And DIVVS AVG PATER PATRIAE (The divine Augustus, Father of the country)

It was donated to the Museum in a bequest of the Royal Institute (Liverpool) and it weighs 7.64g

R.1384 Cat. 399